This report, part of WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, explores the background to the urban sanitation sector in Ghana.

Summary of findings:

  • Ghana is a fast-growing economy that has made notable progress in reducing poverty.
  • Urban infrastructure has not kept pace with cities’ expansion and high levels of rural-urban migration.
  • Only a fraction of urban residents use improved sanitation facilities as per the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) definition, but transport and treatment services are developing.
  • Well-developed legal, policy, and strategy frameworks exist but need to be fully implemented.
  • Sanitation has not been a public funding priority and households bear the bulk of the costs.
  • From lack of prioritisation to insufficient demand and limited supply, barriers to developing pro-poor sanitation services remain significant.
Situation analysis of the urban sanitation sector in Bangladesh

This report, an output of WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, explores the background to the urban sanitation sector in Bangladesh.

Summary of findings:

  • Bangladesh is a lower middle-income country with high ambitions, but poor infrastructure in urban areas is holding back economic growth.
  • Onsite sanitation is the norm; transport and treatment services for sewage and faecal sludge are under-developed.
  • The legal framework for sanitation is fragmented, but recent progress has been made in developing a draft regulatory framework for faecal sludge management (FSM).
  • There is significant overlap in institutional responsibilities, contributing to the limited supply of FSM services.
  • Funding has focused on rural sanitation, and sewerage services to urban areas.
  • Rapid urbanisation, low decentralisation, lack of demand for and supply of FSM services and lack of investment are all major barriers to pro-poor urban sanitation.
  • Despite challenges, the sector has an opportunity to bring about change.