Ce guide se veut une introduction à l’élaboration de programmes EHA en milieu urbain : il porte sur l’élaboration et la mise en oeuvre des programmes EHA en faveur des plus démunis.

Ce guide s’adresse avant tout aux professionnels EHA qui travaillent au sein d’un gouvernement, d’un organisme d’aide du développement, d’un organisme de financement ou d’une organisation de la société civile. Il sera également utile aux professionnels travaillant pour les prestataires de services, notamment aux compagnies de distribution d’eau, aux autorités locales et au secteur privé.

Community engagement in water and sanitation service delivery is key for ensuring project sustainability and accountability. This Topic Brief looks at community engagement approaches used by WSUP in three cities within the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme: Antananarivo (Madagascar), Kumasi (Ghana) and Maputo (Mozambique). The specific focus is on ways to encourage community involvement in the design of water supply and sanitation projects, and ways in which local service providers can elicit input and feedback from people living in low-income communities.

Extending water and sanitation services to the urban poor will often involve contractual relationships between small-scale entrepreneurs and municipalities or utilities. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme to illustrate ways of dealing with the challenges that arise when developing this type of contract, providing practical guidance for programme managers on issues including contract enforcement.

Market-driven models for sanitation in low-income areas are of unquestionable importance, but there is broad consensus that the market needs to be supported by some sort of public revenue stream. One potentially pro-poor approach to revenue generation, as demonstrated in Lusaka and Ouagadougou, is to include a sanitation surcharge within water bills. This Discussion Paper is a situation review of sanitation surcharge systems in African cities, focusing on systems designed to raise revenues for improving sanitation in low-income districts.

Donor-funded water and sanitation improvement programmes operate within the formal frameworks put in place by municipal or national governments. However, in order to plan and implement programmes effectively, it is essential that implementers also recognise and take into account the influence of more subtle informal factors, such as conventions, norms of behaviour, and unwritten cultural codes of conduct. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, illustrating how both formal and informal factors can influence local service provider and low-income consumer behaviours – and providing practical guidance for programme managers on how to respond to these issues and ensure greater project sustainability.

Financing water and sanitation improvements for the very poor remains a major challenge across large areas of the globe. In the lead-up to World Water Forum 2012, sector specialists throughout the world have been asked to report specific measures for addressing this deficit. In this paper, WSUP and IRC propose six Key Solutions and urge financing institutions, governments and service providers worldwide to put these solutions into practice

This report assesses the feasibility of a financing model, Progress-Linked Finance (PLF), designed to incentivise and support WASH service providers to meet the needs of poor urban residents in a financially sustainable manner. Under the PLF model, international financing institutions would enter into commitment agreements with urban WASH service providers, notably utilities and municipalities.

Even in city districts served by a water network, there are various barriers to connection by the poorest households. Sometimes a major barrier is simply the paperwork. In Maputo, Mozambique, the Tchemulane project is working with community groups and the water utility to help poorer consumers access a household connection.

Mesmo nos distritos urbanos servidos por uma rede de abastecimento de água, existem vários obstáculos para a  ligação dos mais desfavorecidos. Muitas das vezes o maior obstáculo é simplesmente a documentação. Em  Maputo (Moçambique), o projeto Tchemulane está a trabalhar com as comunidades e com a AdeM para ajudar os  consumidores de baixa renda a terem acesso a uma ligação domiciliária.

Même dans les quartiers urbains desservis par réseaux d’eau, les ménages les plus pauvres rencontrent des difficultés de branchement. La plupart du temps, les formalités représentent l’ obstacle majeur. À Maputo (Mozambique), le projet Tchemulane travaille avec des groupes communautaires et le service des eaux pour aider les consommateurs les plus pauvres à avoir accès au branchement domestique.