Findings from the Maputo Sanitation (‘MapSan’) project in Mozambique

This Policy Brief summarises the findings of a qualitative research study which looked at causes and levels of psychosocial stress among users of traditional shared latrines and high-quality shared toilets in Maputo (Mozambique). The findings suggest that high-quality shared toilets can substantially reduce feelings of stress associated with fear of robbery, physical assault or sexual assault when using the toilet.

However, fear of violence was not totally eliminated, reflecting high crime levels in these communities, and suggesting that additional measures (such as improved compound fencing) may be necessary.

This research was led by Tess Shiras and Robert Dreibelbis of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, and was funded under a grant to the MapSan project by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Balancing financial viability and user affordability report cover

This Topic Brief presents assessments of the financial performance of six WSUP-supported WASH service delivery models in Bangladesh, Madagascar, Mozambique and Zambia.

Each model has been developed in partnership with locally mandated service providers to facilitate sustainable, at-scale improvements to low-income urban populations.

Locating the appropriate balance between financial viability and user affordability is at the core of WSUP’s programmatic activities. The approach is characterised by a number of important nuances specific to the contexts in which WSUP and partner institutions operate:

  • Long-term cost recovery is the goal
  • Urban sanitation service provision is uniquely challenging: ongoing public investment is typically required
  • Eventual uptake of new models is determined by the wider enabling environment
Shared sanitation in Dhaka

Shared toilets as the path to health and dignity

Neil Jeffery, Chief Executive Officer, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor Tim Wainwright, Chief Executive, WaterAid Guangzhe Chen, Senior Director, Water Global Practice, World Bank Group This article was originally published on FT.com – read the original article here Mollar Bosti is a crowded slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, home to 10,000 people: garment workers, rickshaw […]


Don’t neglect shared latrines in drive for sanitation for all, agencies warn

WSUP joins WaterAid, World Bank and leading academics in urging donors, policymakers and planners not to neglect shared sanitation Where private household toilets aren’t yet an option, safe, well-managed shared toilets are a crucial step to further improvement Funding for safe, shared toilets in fast-growing developing-world cities is at risk of neglect from donors, policymakers […]


Can we get a toilet into every compound?

Last week, Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) held a webinar to present insights from our ongoing work in improving sanitation in compounds in Kumasi and Ga West, Ghana. Around 60% of low-income households use public toilets in Kumasi. These facilities are often poorly maintained, unhygienic and unsafe, particularly for women using them […]


Public toilets are the leading form of sanitation in urban Ghana: in Kumasi, 700,000 people use one each day. This Note presents the activities of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) to raise the standard of these services.

In the low-income communities of Kumasi and Ga West (Accra), over half the population live in compounds without access to an in-house toilet. This Note details WSUP’s support to Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) and Ga West Municipality in developing a five-year Compound Sanitation Strategy.