Aims

To generate evidence that supports development of the recently introduced sanitation surcharge in Ga West and a similar surcharge enacted in Akuapem North, such that they prove effective in terms of revenue generation, and cost-effective and pro-poor in terms of expenditure. To generate evidence that will enable other Ghanaian municipalities (e.g. Kumasi) to consider replication of this model.

Findings

  • Policymakers’ acceptance and approval of pro-poor sanitation surcharge have failed to translate into effective implementation of the policy, mainly as a result of lack of commitment and a failure to appoint somebody to champion and coordinate the implementation process.
  • Level of compliance with property rate payment is low in Ga West, mainly as a result of the failure of the Assembly to demand payment
  • Property owners’ support for the pro-poor sanitation policy was found to be fairly high in the two municipalities but quite low in the Kumasi Metropolis
  • For the sanitation surcharge to receive popular support, Assemblies need to address issues of public mistrust and negative perceptions

Next steps

It is recommended that the municipalities:

  • Prepare an implementation strategy for the surcharges
  • Improve their performance in collecting the property rate from households
  • Revise the flat rate charged in Akuapem North
  • Effectively communicate and engage with taxpayers about annual revenue and expenditure

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Mind the gap: Investigating the funding shortfall in urban sanitation

Who should pay for sanitation? The consumers who use the service, the utilities in charge of providing it, or governments who are responsible for ensuring citizens can access safe facilities? Consumers pay to connect their homes to a sewer network, utilities use that cash to cover the costs of staffing, upkeep, operations and maintenance and […]


Workshop held to share and discuss findings of research in Rangpur, Chittagong and Dhaka

On the 27th January, high-level stakeholders from three cities (Dhaka, Chittagong and Rangpur) in Bangladesh came together to discuss the findings of a research project commissioned by WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative and delivered by ITN-BUET. This project assessed how Bangladeshi City Corporations deliver sanitation services to their citizens and explains how the external environment, […]


SWEEP operators at work, Bangladesh

Aims

To support sanitation policy development in Ghana, Kenya and Bangladesh and in particular to provide a firm financial analysis basis that contributes to city sanitation investment decisions in the five selected cities and nationally, and that supports assessment of public finance requirements for pro-poor urban sanitation improvement. This study should generate useful international learning, including with reference to financing requirements for achieving the sanitation SDGs.

Locations: Kisumu, Nakuru and Malindi (Kenya), Rangpur (Bangladesh) and Kumasi (Ghana).

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Accessing water in Korogocho, Nairobi, Kenya

Aims

To build towards introduction of a sanitation surcharge that can provide a revenue stream for supporting the recurrent costs of sanitation services in low-income areas of Kenyan cities.

Findings

Findings indicate that 1) feelings of trust that money raised through a surcharge would be spent properly, and 2) solidarity with neighbours who have to use poor sanitation facilities are both important. The research also found that it will be easier to introduce a surcharge of this type if it’s associated with improvements in the quality of water and sanitation services as experienced by bill-payers themselves.

Median WTP was 100 Kenya shillings (Ksh) per month, around $1. If applied across all of Kenya’s 91 utilities, this could potentially raise up to 1.6 billion Ksh annually, around $16 million.

Next steps

This research project received excellent support from WASREB, the Kenyan national water regulator. WASREB are now working with the County Government of Nakuru and NAWASSCO (the utility in Nakuru) to introduce a pilot surcharge. The exact design of the surcharge is in development, and the pilot is scheduled to begin in 2019.

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Aim

To document comparative models of national-level sanitation authorities for Ghana’s Ministry of Sanitation and Water Resources, and to support decision-making around design of Ghana’s future National Sanitation Authority.

Findings

The international comparative review of sanitation bodies revealed that no single agency has the mandate to carry out all the activities proposed by the MSWR for the NSA. Researchers therefore recommended that the MSWR consider different models:

  1. NSA provides funding and capacity building to local authorities to deliver sanitation
  2. NSA takes on a primarily regulatory role
  3. NSA becomes a national utility

Next steps

The establishment of the NSA is an ongoing discussion between stakeholders at the national, regional and local level. Consultations with stakeholders revealed that MSWR will need to carefully consider how the existing institutions and organisations would 1) be affected by the establishment of a new body and 2) work with the NSA, according to whichever model the MSWR will choose.

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