Taking urban water to scale requires ‘scaling out’ models that work for poorer communities, and at the same time ‘scaling up’ sustainable management processes. This note reports scale-out and scale-up experience from Maputo and Antananarivo.

Mettre l’assainissement urbain à l’échelle requiert des modèles replicables adaptés aux communautés plus pauvres, et en même temps des processus de gestion pérenne de mise à l’échelle Cette note montre les expériences de réplication et de mise à l’échelle à Maputo et à Antananarivo.

Taking urban sanitation to scale requires ‘scaling out’ models that work for poorer communities, and at the same time ‘scaling up’ sustainable management processes. This note reports scale-out and scale-up experience from Maputo and Antananarivo.

Aumentar a cobertura de serviços do saneamento urbano, requer o “scaling out” de modelos adequados para as comunidades mais desfavorecidas e ao mesmo tempo, o “scaling up” dos processos de gestão sustentáveis. Esta nota informa sobre a experiência de Maputo e de Antananarivo sobre o “scaling out” e o “scaling up”.

Plans for sanitation improvements often stall at an early stage due to the challenge of costing different sanitation options, leaving low-income communities without improved sanitation. To address this need, WSUP, IWA and local partners have developed a financial tool which helps planners get a preliminary understanding of the affordability of different sanitation improvement strategies.

This Topic Brief describes the development of the prototype tool, how it works, its practical application in two wards of Dhaka and the results it produced. Ways in which the tool could be improved are noted, and the Topic Brief ends with a discussion of the tool’s potential wider applications.

WSUP’s work takes place in urban contexts with complex formal and informal land ownership arrangements, raising diverse challenges for water and sanitation service provision. For example, the people in most need of improved water and sanitation are often tenants, yet landlords may be unwilling to invest in better toilets. Similarly, improving these services often requires land for construction of communal or public facilities, raising the issue of land tenure. Drawing on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, this Topic Brief gives an overview of these challenges and discusses possible solutions.

Community engagement in water and sanitation service delivery is key for ensuring project sustainability and accountability. This Topic Brief looks at community engagement approaches used by WSUP in three cities within the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme: Antananarivo (Madagascar), Kumasi (Ghana) and Maputo (Mozambique). The specific focus is on ways to encourage community involvement in the design of water supply and sanitation projects, and ways in which local service providers can elicit input and feedback from people living in low-income communities.

Extending water and sanitation services to the urban poor will often involve contractual relationships between small-scale entrepreneurs and municipalities or utilities. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme to illustrate ways of dealing with the challenges that arise when developing this type of contract, providing practical guidance for programme managers on issues including contract enforcement.

Donor-funded water and sanitation improvement programmes operate within the formal frameworks put in place by municipal or national governments. However, in order to plan and implement programmes effectively, it is essential that implementers also recognise and take into account the influence of more subtle informal factors, such as conventions, norms of behaviour, and unwritten cultural codes of conduct. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, illustrating how both formal and informal factors can influence local service provider and low-income consumer behaviours – and providing practical guidance for programme managers on how to respond to these issues and ensure greater project sustainability.

This report assesses the feasibility of a financing model, Progress-Linked Finance (PLF), designed to incentivise and support WASH service providers to meet the needs of poor urban residents in a financially sustainable manner. Under the PLF model, international financing institutions would enter into commitment agreements with urban WASH service providers, notably utilities and municipalities.