Equality & engagement: microloans & capacity building in Antananarivo

International Women’s Day is a collective day of global celebration, as well as a call for gender parity. It is about marking the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women worldwide and pledging to take concrete steps towards achieving greater gender equality: by calling for gender-balanced leadership, developing more inclusive, flexible communities and eliminating […]


Urban water utilities face complex challenges in extending services to low-income communities (LICs). This Practice Note looks at DWASA’s evolving approach to serving LICs in Dhaka, one of the world’s fastest growing cities.

Drawing upon 10 case studies from Africa and Asia, this Discussion Paper explores a question that is core to the urban water supply challenge: how can utilities effectively structure their organisation to extend services to low-income communities?

Despite the acknowledged importance of on-site sanitation, examples of safe and commercially viable faecal sludge management (FSM) services remain few and far between. This Topic Brief sets out the process and learning from a recent project – completed with funding from the Stone Family Foundation (SFF), and led by Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC) – which aimed to introduce a complete FSM service in the peri-urban areas of Kanyama and Chazanga.

Despite most residents of African and Asian cities depending on non-sewered sanitation, only a handful of sanitation authorities have addressed the management of faecal sludge from these systems. This Practice Note describes the launch of a faecal sludge management (FSM) service in the peri-urban area of Kanyama.

Nairobi’s super-slum Kibera is criss-crossed by sewer mains. So why not simply connect latrines to the sewer? Unfortunately it’s not so simple, for various reasons including high costs. In partnership with Nairobi Water, WSUP has been developing a ‘gradual sewering’ approach that aims to bridge the gap between onsite and sewered sanitation. This note looks at experience to date.

Clean Team is a sanitation business currently being trialled by WSUP in Kumasi (Ghana), in collaboration with Unilever. Using human-centred design methods, it approaches urban sanitation from a radically new angle: asking people in low-income communities what sort of toilet they really want (for example, a flush toilet in their own home), and working from there to develop financially viable solutions that actively drive demand.

This Topic Brief describes a business model for delegated management of local water services, recently developed with WSUP support in the Kenyan Rift Valley town of Naivasha. The model is designed to ensure affordable but high-quality services for consumers, profitability for the operators, and sufficient revenues for sustainable asset maintenance.