Gasia Poa pit emptiers at work in Kisumu, Kenya


Based on detailed literature reviews and interviews with key stakeholders, this project aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the urban sanitation landscape in Bangladesh, Ghana and Kenya. This could then be used to inform WSUP’s future research on key issues facing the sector in each of these countries and identify opportunities to influence change.


Three reports examine each country’s wider socio-economic and political contexts, and provide an overview of institutional and financing arrangements for the sector. They also highlight the challenges of developing pro-poor urban sanitation services and identifies possible drivers of change.

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Is entrepreneurship a solution to the sanitation challenge

Today, entrepreneurs are everywhere – looking increasingly to create not only financial but social gain. And there’s no better place to start than with water and sanitation. One in three people worldwide lack access to a safe, clean toilet. Nearly one billion people live in informal settlements in urban areas without access to a sewered […]

Margaret Shawa, Kanyama

How to deal with waste in areas of a city that lack sewers?

Providing sanitation services to unsewered parts of a city is complex. The challenge goes way beyond simply building toilets – its about finding financially viable ways to collect, treat and dispose of waste. WSUP’s new film tells the story of our work in Lusaka, Zambia, to improve sanitation in low-income communities by working closely with the utility, […]

Despite the acknowledged importance of on-site sanitation, examples of safe and commercially viable faecal sludge management (FSM) services remain few and far between. This Topic Brief sets out the process and learning from a recent project – completed with funding from the Stone Family Foundation (SFF), and led by Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC) – which aimed to introduce a complete FSM service in the peri-urban areas of Kanyama and Chazanga.

Despite most residents of African and Asian cities depending on non-sewered sanitation, only a handful of sanitation authorities have addressed the management of faecal sludge from these systems. This Practice Note describes the launch of a faecal sludge management (FSM) service in the peri-urban area of Kanyama.

Nairobi’s super-slum Kibera is criss-crossed by sewer mains. So why not simply connect latrines to the sewer? Unfortunately it’s not so simple, for various reasons including high costs. In partnership with Nairobi Water, WSUP has been developing a ‘gradual sewering’ approach that aims to bridge the gap between onsite and sewered sanitation. This note looks at experience to date.