This Discussion Paper presents the findings of a modelling study, commissioned as part of WSUP’s 2012-2015 DFID-funded research programme and carried out by the University of Leeds.

Climate change is happening, and the urban poor are extremely vulnerable to its impacts. Demand for water and sanitation services in low-income urban areas is likely to increase, while flooding and water shortages may become more frequent. This Practice Note outlines a rapid assessment method for planning the climate-proofing of a city’s water and sanitation services.

Le changement climatique est une réalité à laquelle les communautés urbaines pauvres sont très vulnérables. Si la demande pour les services d’eau et d’assainissement augmenteront probablement, les inondations et les pénuries d’eau risquent de devenir plus fréquentes, d’où la nécessité pour les fournisseurs de service d’agir maintenant.

As alterações climáticas estão a acontecer e as populações mais desfavorecidas das zonas urbanas são muito vulneráveis aos seus impactos. É muito provável que a procura por serviços de abastecimento de água e de saneamento em áreas urbanas de baixo rendimento aumente e as cheias e a escassez de água poderão tornar-se mais frequentes. Os provedores de serviços devem agir agora.

This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in the informal and peri-urban areas in Antananarivo and considers the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. The vulnerabilities and adaptations were determined based upon a field visit, a vulnerability assessment and a literature review. Under current forecasts for Antananarivo mean temperatures, rainfall and rainfall intensity are predicted to increase. There will be more frequent storms and cyclones will decrease in frequency but increase in intensity. This is likely to increase the volume of runoff, raise river levels and increase the speed of flood onset; resulting in an increase in flooding from both the river and the drains.

This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in the peri-urban areas around Lake Naivasha, reviews the water resources in Lake Naivasha and considers the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Kenya is predicted to increase while precipitation is expected to decrease in volume and increase in intensity, increasing the frequency and severity of droughts.

The main impacts are identified as:
Decreasing lake and ground waters: will have a significant impact as there will be higher domestic demand whilst surface water availability decreases

Increasing lake and groundwater levels is largely positive for Naivasha as there is more water for domestic and irrigation use.

Potential short, medium and long term adaptations are identified for WSUP (or the local provider), NAIVAWASS and the City Council.

This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in two peri-urban areas in Lusaka, Chazanga and Kanyama, and the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Zambia is predicted to increase. It is less certain how average precipitation will be affected, but both floods and droughts will occur more often.

This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation, how to climate proof water and sanitation services and how to adapt.