This Topic Brief explores the viability of communal or public toilets as an alternative to individual household toilets, noting the challenges of financing and sustainable management arrangements. It argues that communal or public toilets may be the most appropriate medium-term solution in some specific situations: notably in high-density slums with a high proportion of tenants and/or frequent flooding and water-logging.Download resource
This Topic Brief describes a business model for delegated management of local water services, recently developed with WSUP support in the Kenyan Rift Valley town of Naivasha. The model is designed to ensure affordable but high-quality services for consumers, profitability for the operators, and sufficient revenues for sustainable asset maintenance.Download resource
This report explains the background and theory of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), how it is implemented and synthesises the main criticisms. The document reviews how IWRM is relevant to the supply of drinking water and sanitation, urban areas and low income countries. Then reviews when IWRM is relevant to WSUP.Download resource
This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in the informal and peri-urban areas in Antananarivo and considers the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. The vulnerabilities and adaptations were determined based upon a field visit, a vulnerability assessment and a literature review. Under current forecasts for Antananarivo mean temperatures, rainfall and rainfall intensity are predicted to increase. There will be more frequent storms and cyclones will decrease in frequency but increase in intensity. This is likely to increase the volume of runoff, raise river levels and increase the speed of flood onset; resulting in an increase in flooding from both the river and the drains.Download resource
This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in the peri-urban areas around Lake Naivasha, reviews the water resources in Lake Naivasha and considers the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Kenya is predicted to increase while precipitation is expected to decrease in volume and increase in intensity, increasing the frequency and severity of droughts.
The main impacts are identified as:
Decreasing lake and ground waters: will have a significant impact as there will be higher domestic demand whilst surface water availability decreases
Increasing lake and groundwater levels is largely positive for Naivasha as there is more water for domestic and irrigation use.
Potential short, medium and long term adaptations are identified for WSUP (or the local provider), NAIVAWASS and the City Council.Download resource
This policy brief outlines whether and when integrated water resource management (IWRM) is relevant to WSUP (Water Supply for the Urban Poor). IWRM is internationally recognised as a good idea, but it can seem to be a confused concept, to both to policy makers and practitioners. It is really a synergy of sustainability, good water management, equity and collaboration, but it is criticised for lacking an operational definition and failing to sustain lasting change. For an overview of IWRM refer to “Pragmatic but Principled” 1 (Heath, 2010i ). This brief reviews the situations when IWRM is relevant to water supply and sanitation services in peri-urban areas, outlines why the process of IWRM is generally not relevant to WSUP then summarises the benefits of incorporating the principles into WSUP’s work and how to do this.Download resource
This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in two peri-urban areas in Lusaka, Chazanga and Kanyama, and the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Zambia is predicted to increase. It is less certain how average precipitation will be affected, but both floods and droughts will occur more often.Download resource
This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation, how to climate proof water and sanitation services and how to adapt.Download resource