This Discussion Paper synthesises experience from Eastern and Southern Africa and Bangladesh to explore the evolving role of regulators in driving urban sanitation service improvements.
The paper argues that effective regulators and regulations are urgently needed to improve urban sanitation services to the poorest, and highlights some ways in which this can be achieved.
The paper features six case studies of diverse regulatory initiatives, ranging from sanitation surcharges and specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to national-level institutional and regulatory frameworks. In each case, the paper aims to document how progress has been made, but also to critically assess future challenges to implementation. Key messages of the paper are:
- Regulatory effectiveness is a core driver of improved sanitation services. Every football match needs a referee.
- Regulations are not enough. Clear responsibilities and active regulating are essential.
- Problems cannot be solved in one bold step. Active regulating involves incremental change, extensive consultation and testing.
- A Regulating Ladder could support countries in their journey towards active regulating.
This is a joint publication between The Eastern and Southern Africa Water and Sanitation Regulators Association (ESAWAS) and Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP).