This Topic Brief describes a business model for delegated management of local water services, recently developed with WSUP support in the Kenyan Rift Valley town of Naivasha. The model is designed to ensure affordable but high-quality services for consumers, profitability for the operators, and sufficient revenues for sustainable asset maintenance.

This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in the peri-urban areas around Lake Naivasha, reviews the water resources in Lake Naivasha and considers the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Kenya is predicted to increase while precipitation is expected to decrease in volume and increase in intensity, increasing the frequency and severity of droughts.

The main impacts are identified as:
Decreasing lake and ground waters: will have a significant impact as there will be higher domestic demand whilst surface water availability decreases

Increasing lake and groundwater levels is largely positive for Naivasha as there is more water for domestic and irrigation use.

Potential short, medium and long term adaptations are identified for WSUP (or the local provider), NAIVAWASS and the City Council.

This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation, how to climate proof water and sanitation services and how to adapt.