Appuyer les entrepreneurs à lancer des services pérennes d’assainissement peut être relativement simple. Cependant, des défis se posent en général quand il faut passer d’une entreprise appuyée par les bailleurs de fonds vers la vraie indépendance. Cette note se penche sur les obstacles à surmonter pour devenir une entreprise autosuffisante et discute comment progresser.

Supporting entrepreneurs to start up viable sanitation businesses can be relatively straightforward. However, challenges typically arise in the transition from donor-supported start-up to true independence. This note looks at the obstacles that need to be overcome in growing start-up businesses to become fully self-sustaining, and discusses how progress can be made.

A clear distinction is generally made between community and private management of water and sanitation services.  For example, entrepreneurs who provide services are assumed to hold very different motivations, values and approaches to Community Based organisations (CBOs). WSUP often seeks to go beyond this “community” versus “private” dichotomy, to try to get “the best of both worlds”. In this Topic Brief, the approaches used by WSUP in Nairobi, Kumasi and Antananarivo under the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme are examined from this perspective of blending community and private management models.

WSUP’s work takes place in urban contexts with complex formal and informal land ownership arrangements, raising diverse challenges for water and sanitation service provision. For example, the people in most need of improved water and sanitation are often tenants, yet landlords may be unwilling to invest in better toilets. Similarly, improving these services often requires land for construction of communal or public facilities, raising the issue of land tenure. Drawing on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, this Topic Brief gives an overview of these challenges and discusses possible solutions.

Extending water and sanitation services to the urban poor will often involve contractual relationships between small-scale entrepreneurs and municipalities or utilities. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme to illustrate ways of dealing with the challenges that arise when developing this type of contract, providing practical guidance for programme managers on issues including contract enforcement.

Donor-funded water and sanitation improvement programmes operate within the formal frameworks put in place by municipal or national governments. However, in order to plan and implement programmes effectively, it is essential that implementers also recognise and take into account the influence of more subtle informal factors, such as conventions, norms of behaviour, and unwritten cultural codes of conduct. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, illustrating how both formal and informal factors can influence local service provider and low-income consumer behaviours – and providing practical guidance for programme managers on how to respond to these issues and ensure greater project sustainability.

This Topic Brief explores the viability of communal or public toilets as an alternative to individual household toilets, noting the challenges of financing and sustainable management arrangements. It argues that communal or public toilets may be the most appropriate medium-term solution in some specific situations: notably in high-density slums with a high proportion of tenants and/or frequent flooding and water-logging.

This Topic Brief describes a business model for delegated management of local water services, recently developed with WSUP support in the Kenyan Rift Valley town of Naivasha. The model is designed to ensure affordable but high-quality services for consumers, profitability for the operators, and sufficient revenues for sustainable asset maintenance.

This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in the peri-urban areas around Lake Naivasha, reviews the water resources in Lake Naivasha and considers the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Kenya is predicted to increase while precipitation is expected to decrease in volume and increase in intensity, increasing the frequency and severity of droughts.

The main impacts are identified as:
Decreasing lake and ground waters: will have a significant impact as there will be higher domestic demand whilst surface water availability decreases

Increasing lake and groundwater levels is largely positive for Naivasha as there is more water for domestic and irrigation use.

Potential short, medium and long term adaptations are identified for WSUP (or the local provider), NAIVAWASS and the City Council.

This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation, how to climate proof water and sanitation services and how to adapt.