Comparing institutional frameworks for urban sanitation in decentralising countries: lessons for Kenya

Published: Country: Kenya

Aims To support sector thinking and decision-making about appropriate design of the institutional framework for urban sanitation in post-devolution Kenya as the Ministry of Health develops the new National Environmental and Sanitation Bill. Findings Important limitations in Kenya’s newly decentralised sanitation frameworks were identified: There is considerate overlap and competition for sector leadership at national […]

Theme: Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative
Water kiosk operator in Naivasha_ Kenya

Comparative study on county water and sanitation budgeting in Kenya

Published: Country: Kenya

Aims To assess how selected County Governments have allocated funds to the water and sanitation sector from FY 2014/15 to 2017/18, and what areas these funds cover, providing evidence that can highlight patterns in allocations, prioritise budget expenditure, and encourage departments to effectively and efficiently improve service delivery. Findings Weak linkages remain between policy, planning, […]

Theme: Public finance, Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, WASH, Water
Solid waste in Mirpur, Dhaka

Assessing organisational capacity for sanitation planning and investment in three Bangladeshi cities

Published: Country: Bangladesh

Aims To assess how Bangladeshi City Corporations (specifically Dhaka North, Chittagong and Rangpur) deliver sanitation services to their citizens and how the external environment and long-term, operational and short-term factors influence City Corporations’ capacity to plan, finance, design and implement sustainable sanitation services. Findings Despite Bangladesh’s achievement of eradicating open defecation, access to improved sanitation […]

Theme: Finance, Planning, Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative

Faecal pathogen flow modelling in urban environments: a proposed approach to inform sanitation planning


Aims To build towards better understanding of pro-poor sanitation investment practice, and to (potentially) lay the foundation for possible future research around sanitation investment planning in low-income contexts in Bangladesh, Ghana and Kenya. Findings The proposed model uses a “source-pathway-receptor” approach: it considers release of pathogens into the environment, transport in the environment, and eventual […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Health impact, Hygiene, Planning, Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative
Gasia Poa pit emptiers at work in Kisumu, Kenya

Situation analyses of the urban sanitation sector

Published: Country: Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya

Aims Based on detailed literature reviews and interviews with key stakeholders, this project aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the urban sanitation landscape in Bangladesh, Ghana and Kenya. This could then be used to inform WSUP’s future research on key issues facing the sector in each of these countries and identify opportunities to influence […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Innovation, Planning, Research, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative
Kanyama first transfer station

The cost of urban sanitation solutions: a literature review


Findings Conventional sewer systems are the most expensive urban sanitation solution, followed by systems based on septic tanks, ventilated improved pits (VIP), urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDT), then pour-flush pit latrines. Simplified sewer systems may cost less than both conventional sewer systems and septic tank-based systems. Next steps Cost reporting methodologies are inconsistent, and few studies […]

Theme: Planning, Public finance, Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative
Compound sanitation Ghana

Analysing implementation of regulations requiring landlords to provide acceptable sanitation

Published: Country: Ghana

Aims To build towards improved enforcement of municipal regulations that require landlords in Ghanaian cities to provide acceptable sanitation facilities for tenants, and to increase market demand for sanitation services (toilet construction, septic tank emptying). Findings Nearly half of landlords are unaware of the existence of such by-laws. Most tenants (93%) who are aware of […]

Theme: Regulation, Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative