Conventional sewer systems are the most expensive urban sanitation solution, followed by systems based on septic tanks, ventilated improved pits (VIP), urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDT), then pour-flush pit latrines. Simplified sewer systems may cost less than both conventional sewer systems and septic tank-based systems.
Cost reporting methodologies are inconsistent, and few studies provide data on lifecycle costs for the full urban sanitation chain. Building sanitation cost databases at country or city level could be useful for investment planning.
- Journal article (Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development): Oct 2017 – The cost of urban sanitation solutions: a literature review
- Blog: Feb 2018 – Mind the gap: Investigating the funding shortfall in urban sanitation
- Policy Brief: Feb 2018 – Comparing the costs of different urban sanitation solutions in developing cities in Africa and Asia