To build towards better understanding of pro-poor sanitation investment practice, and to (potentially) lay the foundation for possible future research around sanitation investment planning in low-income contexts in Bangladesh, Ghana and Kenya.


The proposed model uses a “source-pathway-receptor” approach: it considers release of pathogens into the environment, transport in the environment, and eventual human exposure.

Next steps

The model can potentially provide a framework for comparing the relative impacts of different sanitation options on health; the next step should be to test the approach in a real city.

A follow-on project is now underway in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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