A joint report by EY and WSUP. For many low-income residents in urban areas, flush toilets and connections to a piped sewer or septic system are simply not an option. Frequently the infrastructure just doesn’t exist (and may take years to come), systems are too expensive or technically difficult to construct (particularly in densely populated, flood prone, hilly or rocky areas) or service fees are too high. The world needs a viable, high-quality alternative to piped sanitation. That’s why a small number of groups around the world — including Clean Team in Ghana, which was set up and is managed by WSUP — are pioneering the concept of container-based sanitation.