This report, part of WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, explores the background to the urban sanitation sector in Kenya.
Summary of findings:
- Kenya is one of Africa’s top 10 economies, experiencing strong urban growth amid deep institutional and governance reforms.
- A minority of urban residents use improved sanitation facilities as per the JMP definition, while wastewater treatment and faecal sludge transport/treatment services are largely inefficient.
- The legal framework for sanitation remains fragmented and focuses on sewerage services.
- The policy framework sets high ambitions and recognises a range of solutions and service provision models.
- There is significant institutional fragmentation and overlap, especially between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation.
- Investments in sanitation for low-income areas are almost entirely donor-funded.
- Inadequate institutional capacity, inadequate sector financing and insufficient data are major barriers to pro-poor sanitation.