Water doesn’t come out of a tap…

…It comes out of a system. This is not just a system of infrastructure but also that of people, institutions and politics which manage it.

Take a look at how water flows through cities, and how different parts of the system interact to affect whether residents living in the poorest parts of a city can get access to clean, safe, water.


More blogs

Promoting gender equality through better water and sanitation services

Published: Country: Kenya, Mozambique, ZambiaLanguage: English

Women and girls primarily bear the responsibility for household water supply and child care, and are the most affected by poor sanitation. The amount of time spent locating and collecting water represents a major barrier to economic gain and empowerment as it reduces time available for income generating activities and school attendance. This paper highlights […]

Theme: Gender, Health impact, Sanitation, WASH, Water

Institutionalising pro-poor services: A new Key Performance Indicator for Kenyan utilities

Published: Country: KenyaLanguage: English

The Kenyan water and sewerage regulator, WASREB, has introduced a new Key Performance Indicator (KPI) mandating utilities to report their efforts to serve low-income areas. KPI 10 requires utilities to demonstrate their pro-poor strategies, mapping and engagement, now essential to placing highly in WASREB’s annual ranking. This Practice Note outlines the 7-year process – driven […]

Theme: Regulation, Utilities, WASH, Water

Improving the performance of water entrepreneurs in urban Kisumu, Kenya

Published: Country: KenyaLanguage: English

Master Operators (MOs) are small-scale semi-autonomous water providers who serve low-income areas in Kisumu, overseen by Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) through a Delegated Management Model. MOs extend the supply network to many of the city’s poorer residents for a fair price and have helped to semi-regulate previously informal water services. However, they have […]

Theme: Finance, Utilities, WASH, Water

Mapping sanitation in peri-urban Lusaka: a toilet database

Published: Country: ZambiaLanguage: English

This Practice Note outlines the development of a toilet database to support sanitation business development and public health monitoring in Lusaka. Currently being tested in the peri-urban area (PUA) of Kanyama, the electronic database enables information on the ownership, location, quality and emptying history of local pit latrines and septic tanks to be stored in […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Innovation, Sanitation, Tools and guidance

International study of institutional models to support the development of Ghana’s proposed National Sanitation Authority

Published: Country: GhanaLanguage: English

Lead author: IMC Worldwide. The overall aim of the project is to respond to the Government of Ghana’s interest to establish a National Sanitation Authority (NSA) to prioritise sanitation service delivery and achieve Ghana’s commitment to SDG Goal 6. The Ministry of Sanitation & Water Resources (MSWR) has requested the Urban Sanitation Research Initiative in […]

Theme: Research, Sanitation, Tools and guidance, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative

Smart enforcement of sanitation by-laws in Ghana

Published: Country: GhanaLanguage: English

This Policy Brief reports a research project that identified ways of improving enforcement of by-laws requiring urban landlords to provide acceptable sanitation facilities for their tenants. In Ga West, as in other Ghanaian municipalities, by-laws requiring landlords to provide adequate sanitation exist: but they are rarely enforced. Nearly half of landlords are unaware of the […]

Theme: Public/shared toilets, Regulation, Research, Sanitation, Urban Sanitation Research Initiative
Towards citywide sanitation in Lusaka

Towards citywide sanitation in Lusaka: The next phase of non-sewered sanitation

Published: Country: ZambiaLanguage: English

Lusaka has made huge strides in introducing faecal sludge management (FSM) services for low-income consumers, particularly thanks to the efforts of the city’s utility, Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC). WSUP has worked closely with Lusaka’s water and sanitation stakeholders, including LWSC and Lusaka City Council (LCC), for a number of years. In particular, LWSC […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Sanitation, Tools and guidance

Regulatory reform: raising the standard of pit-emptying services in Kisumu

Published: Country: KenyaLanguage: English

In Kisumu, Kenya, pit latrines are the dominant form of sanitation, yet the servicing of these pits has previously been unregulated. This Note outlines the recent introduction of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – led by Kisumu County Public Health Office – which aim to minimise operator and public health risk throughout the emptying and disposal […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Regulation, Sanitation, WASH
Incentivising the private sector to target low-income customers

Incentivising the private sector to target low-income customers

Published: Country: BangladeshLanguage: English

Sanitation businesses can improve services for all urban residents – including the poorest – but this requires carefully designed pricing strategies and measures to reduce risk. This publication outlines WSUP’s approach to incentivising the private sector to target low-income customers, and how this is being applied to achieve commercial viability, affordability and equity of FSM […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Finance, Market development, Sanitation
Adapting and replicating a proven partnership model for urban sanitation SWEEP in Chittagong

Adapting and replicating a proven partnership model for urban sanitation: SWEEP in Chittagong

Published: Country: BangladeshLanguage: English

This Topic Brief explores the replication of a public-private partnership (PPP) that provides safe faecal sludge emptying and transport from on-site sanitation facilities such as pit latrines and septic tanks, marketed as ‘SWEEP’. Following a successful pilot period and subsequent expansion of SWEEP in Dhaka, WSUP is now replicating the SWEEP model in Bangladesh’s second largest […]

Theme: Faecal sludge management, Market development, Sanitation