Donor-funded water and sanitation improvement programmes operate within the formal frameworks put in place by municipal or national governments. However, in order to plan and implement programmes effectively, it is essential that implementers also recognise and take into account the influence of more subtle informal factors, such as conventions, norms of behaviour, and unwritten cultural codes of conduct. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme, illustrating how both formal and informal factors can influence local service provider and low-income consumer behaviours – and providing practical guidance for programme managers on how to respond to these issues and ensure greater project sustainability.
Community Management, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water
Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique
Type of Resource
Publications: Topic Brief