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  • The Urban Water Supply Guide: Service delivery options for low-income communities

    1 1406296339 71 2014 Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia English Non Revenue Water (NRW), Sustainability, Tools, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water Publications: Guide

    Providing improved water supply to low-income urban communities is a difficult challenge faced by water utilities throughout Africa and Asia. This guide provides an introduction to available options for serving these communities. The guide draws on sector experience in general, and more particularly on WSUP’s extensive experience of implementing urban WASH programmes in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

    Publications: Guide, Published 2014

  • FSM services in Lusaka: moving up the excreta management ladder

    2 1406024643 137 2014 English Faecal Sludge Management (FSM), Sanitation Publications: Practice Note Zambia

    Despite most residents of African and Asian cities depending on non-sewered sanitation, only a handful of sanitation authorities have addressed the management of faecal sludge from these systems. This Practice Note describes the launch of a faecal sludge management (FSM) service in the peri-urban area of Kanyama.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2014

  • Reducing vandalism of water and sanitation infrastructure: experience from Zambia’s Copperbelt

    3 1399047768 378 1 2014 Business, Non Revenue Water (NRW), Sustainability, Utilities Management English Publications: Topic Brief Zambia

    This Topic Brief highlights the relevance of vandalism as a key issue that impacts on the financial viability of water and sanitation utilities, and aims to provide practical insights on strategies for vandalism reduction.

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2014

  • Reducing vandalism: experience from Zambia’s Copperbelt

    4 1398443514 251 1 2014 English Non Revenue Water (NRW), Utilities Management, Water Publications: Practice Note Zambia

    Water and sanitation utilities commonly experience vandalism and theft of their property. This Practice Note describes experience from the Copperbelt region of Zambia, where Nkana Water and Sewerage Company (NWSC) are tackling the issue through a three-pronged, integrated approach of improving customer and utility relations, increasing the community’s sense of ownership, and strengthening law enforcement.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2014

  • African Cities for the Future (ACF) Annual Report 2010

    5 1396353457 194 2010 Community Management, Monitoring and Evaluation, Sanitation, Sustainability, Water English Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Reports

    This report describes the progress of the first year of the African Cities for the Future (ACF) program for the period October 2009 to September 2010.

    Reports, Published 2010

  • The Urban Programming Guide: How to design and implement an effective urban WASH programme

    6 1396019760 1610 2014 Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia Business, Finance, Gender, Monitoring and Evaluation, Non Revenue Water (NRW), Sanitation, Sustainability, Tools, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Publications: Guide

    The guide provides an introduction to urban WASH programming: how to design and implement a pro-poor urban water, sanitation and hygiene programme.

    Publications: Guide, Published 2014

  • Sewerage or FSM? Sometimes both: ‘gradual sewering’ in Nairobi

    7 1395846957 498 2014 English Kenya Publications: Practice Note Sanitation

    Nairobi’s super-slum Kibera is criss-crossed by sewer mains. So why not simply connect latrines to the sewer? Unfortunately it’s not so simple, for various reasons including high costs. In partnership with Nairobi Water, WSUP has been developing a ‘gradual sewering’ approach that aims to bridge the gap between onsite and sewered sanitation. This note looks at experience to date.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2014

  • Uma abordagem inclusiva de género: saneamento comunitário

    8 1394633320 144 2014 Gender, Sanitation, WASH Planning Kenya, Mozambique Portuguese Publications: Practice Note

    As mulheres e as raparigas sofrem os efeitos do mau saneamento e baixo acesso a água potável. Através do exemplo do estabelecimento de instalações de saneamento comunitário em Maputo (Moçambique) e em Naivasha (Quénia), esta Nota Prática ilustra uma abordagem à provisão de serviços WASH que promove a inclusão, igualdade e que põe as preocupações das mulheres e raparigas no centro da planificação e implementação do programa.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2014

  • A gender-inclusive approach in practice: communal sanitation

    9 1394117782 722 2014 English Gender, Sanitation Kenya, Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    Women and girls suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water. Through the example of establishing communal sanitation facilities in Maputo (Mozambique) and Naivasha (Kenya), this Practice Note illustrates how WASH service provision can be approached in a way that fosters inclusion, promotes equality, and places the concerns of women and girls at the centre of programme planning and implementation.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2014

  • African Cities for the Future (ACF) Annual Report 2013

    10 1393863374 290 2013 English Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar Non Revenue Water (NRW), Sanitation, Sustainability, Water Reports

    This report describes the progress of the fourth year of the African Cities for the Future (ACF) program for the period October 2012 to September 2013.

    Reports, Published 2013

  • Financing communal toilets: the Tchemulane project in Maputo

    11 1389704174 321 2011 Community Management, Finance, Sanitation English Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    This Practice Note examines the financing of communal toilets in Maputo, Mozambique, carried out in conjunction with municipal level capacity building and citywide sanitation planning. It argues that in high density, low income communities, communal toilets serving small groups of families can be an effective sanitation solution.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Achieving sustainability: encouraging local government investment

    12 1380038188 972 2013 Bangladesh, Madagascar, Mozambique English Finance, Sanitation, Sustainability, Tools, Utilities Management Publications: Practice Note

    Substantial local government investment is essential for sustainable services, but difficult to achieve. Barriers include institutional lack of clarity over responsibilities (particularly in sanitation provision), weak capacity to collect and manage revenues, unpredictable transfers from national to local government, and a lack of data on past spending and its effectiveness. This paper looks at some…

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2013

  • Achieving sustainability: guiding entrepreneurs to independence

    13 1379522249 1329 2013 Business, Finance, Sanitation, Sustainability, Water English Kenya, Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    Supporting entrepreneurs to start up viable sanitation businesses can be relatively straightforward. However, challenges typically arise in the transition from donor-supported start-up to true independence. This note looks at the obstacles that need to be overcome in growing start-up businesses to become fully self-sustaining, and discusses how progress can be made.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2013

  • African Cities for the Future (ACF) Annual Report 2011

    14 1379347209 364 2011 English Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Reports Sanitation, Water

    This report describes the progress of the second year of the African Cities for the Future (ACF) program for the period October 2010 to September 2011.

    Reports, Published 2011

  • African Cities for the Future (ACF) Annual Report 2012

    15 1379345726 397 2012 English Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Reports Sanitation, Water

    This report describes progress in the third year of the African Cities for the Future (ACF) program, for the period October 2011 to September 2012.

    Reports, Published 2012

  • Achieving Sustainability: changing the ways in which we define success

    16 1378122171 988 2013 English Monitoring and Evaluation Publications: Perspective

    Implementing agencies like WSUP, Water For People and IRC are of course accountable to their funders, including major bilaterals and foundations and naturally, these funders must track the effectiveness of their spending. However, short budget cycles and the need to demonstrate “value for money” can often encourage over-simplistic measurement of success in terms of short-term…

    Publications: Perspective, Published 2013

  • Getting to scale in urban sanitation

    17 1377789409 2185 2013 English Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief Sanitation, WASH Planning

    Scale-up of urban sanitation remains an elusive goal in most low-income cities. Donor interventions are often macro-investments without adequate attention to low-income communities, or small pilots that do not address the challenges of scale. This Topic Brief offers lessons for scale-up deriving from WSUP’s 2008-2012 programme in Maputo (Mozambique) and Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013

  • Getting to scale in urban water supply

    18 1377789220 2019 2013 Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief WASH Planning, Water

    Scale-up of urban water services which meet the needs of low-income populations is a pressing challenge in most African cities. Ensuring the quality, reliability and affordability of water services to low-income residents typically remain elusive goals. This Topic Brief offers lessons for scale-up deriving from WSUP’s 2008-2012 programme in Maputo (Mozambique) and Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013

  • Financial analysis for sanitation planning: lessons from Dhaka

    19 1377789044 970 2013 Bangladesh English Finance, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning Publications: Topic Brief

    Plans for sanitation improvements often stall at an early stage due to the challenge of costing different sanitation options, leaving low-income communities without improved sanitation. To address this need, WSUP, IWA and local partners have developed a financial tool which helps planners get a preliminary understanding of the affordability of different sanitation improvement strategies.

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013

  • Get to scale in urban water!

    20 1377788233 512 2013 English Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Practice Note WASH Planning, Water

    Taking urban water to scale requires ‘scaling out’ models that work for poorer communities, and at the same time ‘scaling up’ sustainable management processes. This note reports scale-out and scale-up experience from Maputo and Antananarivo.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2013

  • Get to scale in urban sanitation!

    21 1377788044 703 2013 English Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Practice Note Sanitation, WASH Planning

    Taking urban sanitation to scale requires ‘scaling out’ models that work for poorer communities, and at the same time ‘scaling up’ sustainable management processes. This note reports scale-out and scale-up experience from Maputo and Antananarivo.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2013

  • 100% access by design: a financial analysis tool for urban sanitation

    22 1377781460 725 2013 Bangladesh English Finance, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning Publications: Practice Note

    Reliably assessing the cost of different sanitation solutions is a key urban planning challenge. This Practice Note describes an Excel-based financial analysis tool which generates reliable costings of different options for achieving 100% sanitation access across low-income and non-low-income areas.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2013

  • Evaluating the health impact of urban WASH programmes: an affordable approach for enhancing effectiveness

    23 1373387196 525 2011 English Health Impacts, Monitoring and Evaluation, Research Publications: Discussion Paper

    This paper puts forward the case for more widespread evaluation of the health impacts of WASH interventions. It argues that more frequent evaluation would encourage investors and implementers to focus on impacts rather than outputs, and would enable more objective comparative assessment of the value-for-money of different types of urban WASH intervention. Importantly the paper…

    Publications: Discussion Paper, Published 2011

  • Progress-Linked Finance: a study of the feasibility and practicality of a proposed WASH financing approach

    24 1373387128 403 2011 English Finance, Sanitation, Water Publications: Discussion Paper

    This report assesses the feasibility of a financing model, Progress-Linked Finance (PLF), designed to incentivise and support WASH service providers to meet the needs of poor urban residents in a financially sustainable manner. Under the PLF model, international financing institutions would enter into commitment agreements with urban WASH service providers, notably utilities and municipalities.

    Publications: Discussion Paper, Published 2011

  • Financing water and sanitation for the poor: six key solutions

    25 1373387061 450 2012 English Finance, Sanitation, Water Publications: Discussion Paper

    Financing water and sanitation improvements for the very poor remains a major challenge across large areas of the globe. In the lead-up to World Water Forum 2012, sector specialists throughout the world have been asked to report specific measures for addressing this deficit. In this paper, WSUP and IRC propose six Key Solutions and urge…

    Publications: Discussion Paper, Published 2012

  • Sanitation surcharges collected through water bills: a way forward for financing pro-poor sanitation?

    26 1373386970 437 2012 English Finance, Sanitation Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia Publications: Discussion Paper

    Market-driven models for sanitation in low-income areas are of unquestionable importance, but there is broad consensus that the market needs to be supported by some sort of public revenue stream. One potentially pro-poor approach to revenue generation, as demonstrated in Lusaka and Ouagadougou, is to include a sanitation surcharge within water bills. This Discussion Paper…

    Publications: Discussion Paper, Published 2012

  • How to Climate Proof Water and Sanitation Services in the Peri-Urban Areas in Naivasha

    27 1373386873 442 2010 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya Reports

    Reports, Published 2010

  • How to Climate Proof Water & Sanitation Services in Informal & Peri-Urban Areas in Antananarivo

    28 1373386791 419 2010 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Madagascar Reports

    Reports, Published 2010

  • How to Climate Proof Water and Sanitation Services in the Peri-Urban Areas in Lusaka

    29 1373386642 512 2010 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Reports Zambia

    Reports, Published 2010

  • How to climate proof water & sanitation services for the urban poor

    30 1373386533 476 2010 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Reports

    Reports, Published 2010

  • Pragmatic but Principled: Background Report on Integrated Water Resource Management

    31 1373386415 442 2010 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Reports

    Reports, Published 2010

  • Policy brief: When is integrated water resource management relevant to WSUP?

    32 1373386303 441 2010 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Reports

    Reports, Published 2010

  • Using water kiosk revenues to cross-finance environmental hygiene: Tana’s RF2 model

    33 1373386160 579 2011 Community Management, Finance, Sanitation English Madagascar Publications: Practice Note

    In the Madagascan capital Antananarivo (Tana), community groups are using revenues from water kiosks and other local sources to finance a drainage canal cleaning programme, critical to public health. This practice note argues that the Tana experience may provide a sustainable and scalable model for cross financing environmental health improvements.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Financement croisé de l’assainissement environnemental: le modèle RF2 de Tana

    34 1373386087 372 2011 Community Management, Finance, Sanitation French Madagascar Publications: Practice Note

    La pérennité financière est essentielle aux modèles durables de l’assainissement urbain et de l’hygiène environnementale. A Antananarivo (Tana), capitale malgache, les communautés utilisent les recettes des kiosques à eau pour financer le curage de canaux, une action essentielle pour la santé publique.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Financement de toilettes communes: le projet Tchemulane à Maputo

    35 1373385992 371 2011 Community Management, Finance, Sanitation French Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    Des toilettes communes pour plusieurs familles peuvent être une bonne solution dans les quartiers pauvres et densément peuplés. Mais encore faut-il assurer des paiements réguliers par les usagers, et une bonne gestion communautaire des recetttes.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Financiamento de sanitários comunitários: o projecto Tchemulane em Maputo

    36 1373385847 331 2011 Community Management, Finance, Sanitation Mozambique Portuguese Publications: Practice Note

    Em comunidades com uma elevada densidade populacional e baixo rendimento, sanitários comunitários para pequenos grupos de famílias podem ser uma solução eficaz. O desafio é obter pagamentos regulares dos utilizadores e uma gestão comunitária eficaz desta receita.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • GIS & mapping tools for water and sanitation infrastructure

    37 1373385707 680 2011 English Mali Publications: Practice Note Sanitation, Tools, Water

    This practice note discusses the development of web-based tools to enable geographical representation of data – some of which have exciting applications in the design and monitoring of WASH systems. It introduces three tools of this type and briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each: Google Fusion Tables, WaterAid’s Waterpoint Mapper, and Water for…

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Des outils de SIG et de cartographie pour les infrastructures d’eau et d’assainissement

    38 1373385583 421 2011 French Mali Publications: Practice Note Sanitation, Tools, Water

    Des outils de représentation géographique de données sur le web offrent des applications intéressantes pour la conception et le suivi des systèmes d’eau. Cette note présente trois outils actuellement utilisés dans le secteur.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Climate-proofing urban WASH: a rapid assessment method

    39 1373385477 372 2011 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    Climate change is happening, and the urban poor are extremely vulnerable to its impacts. Demand for water and sanitation services in low-income urban areas is likely to increase, while flooding and water shortages may become more frequent. This Practice Note outlines a rapid assessment method for planning the climate-proofing of a city’s water and sanitation…

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Adaptation des services urbaines d’eau et d’assainissement au changement climatique

    40 1373385347 355 2011 Climate Change, Sanitation, Tools, WASH Planning, Water French Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Can NRW reduction programmes lead to improved services for the poor?

    41 1373385213 502 2011 English Madagascar Non Revenue Water (NRW), Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water Publications: Practice Note

    Reducing non-revenue water (NRW) is a common development goal for water utilities, but does it help the poor? In Antananarivo, Madagascar, reducing NRW losses is helping the utility JIRAMA to free up water resources that are being used to supply low-income communities.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Les programmes de réduction de NRW: est-ce qu’ils améliorent les services pour les plus pauvres?

    42 1373385099 372 2011 French Madagascar Non Revenue Water (NRW), Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water Publications: Practice Note

    Réduire le NRW (non-revenue water, “eau non comptabilisée”) est un objectif de développement commun pour les compagnies d’eau, mais est-ce que cela aide les pauvres ? A Antananarivo (Madagascar), la réduction de NRW permet à la compagnie JIRAMA de dégager des ressources en eau qui sont utilisées pour approvisionner les communautés à faible revenu.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Location is everything: optimal placement of community water and sanitation services

    43 1373384976 477 2011 English Madagascar Publications: Practice Note Sanitation, Tools, Water

    When constructing shared facilities like water kiosks and communal toilets, it is critical to identify locations that maximise usage and thus ensure financial viability. This note describes a procedure, developed in Antananarivo, for identifying viable infrastructure locations.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Choisir l’emplacement optimal pour les services communautaires d’eau et d’assainissement

    44 1373384857 408 2011 French Madagascar Publications: Practice Note Sanitation, Tools, Water

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Helping people connect to water networks: good for business, good for the poor?

    45 1373384707 464 2011 English Finance, Utilities Management, Water Mozambique Publications: Practice Note

    Even in city districts served by a water network, there are various barriers to connection by the poorest households. Sometimes a major barrier is simply the paperwork. In Maputo, Mozambique, the Tchemulane project is working with community groups and the water utility to help poorer consumers access a household connection.

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • Clean Team, a human-centred approach to sanitation: initial trials in Ghana

    46 1373384540 1156 2011 Business, Sanitation English Ghana Publications: Practice Note

    Clean Team is a sanitation business currently being trialled by WSUP in Kumasi (Ghana), in collaboration with Unilever. Using human-centred design methods, it approaches urban sanitation from a radically new angle: asking people in low-income communities what sort of toilet they really want (for example, a flush toilet in their own home), and working from…

    Publications: Practice Note, Published 2011

  • When are communal or public toilets an appropriate option?

    47 1373384407 1072 2011 Community Management, Finance, Sanitation, WASH Planning English Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    This Topic Brief explores the viability of communal or public toilets as an alternative to individual household toilets, noting the challenges of financing and sustainable management arrangements. It argues that communal or public toilets may be the most appropriate medium-term solution in some specific situations: notably in high-density slums with a high proportion of tenants and/or…

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2011

  • Business models for delegated management of local water services: experience from Naivasha (Kenya)

    48 1373382817 619 2011 Business, Community Management, Finance, Utilities Management, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    This Topic Brief describes a business model for delegated management of local water services, recently developed with WSUP support in the Kenyan Rift Valley town of Naivasha. The model is designed to ensure affordable but high-quality services for consumers, profitability for the operators, and sufficient revenues for sustainable asset maintenance.

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2011

  • Delegated management of water and sanitation services in urban areas: experiences from Kumasi, Ghana

    49 1373382687 828 2012 Business, Community Management, Finance, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Ghana Publications: Topic Brief

    This Topic Brief focuses on a delegated management model developed in Kumasi (Ghana), where a WSUP-facilitated partnership between the water utility, the Metropolitan Assembly and a community management committee is starting to play a key role in expanding the provision of clean, affordable water and improved public toilet facilities in the low-income district of Kotei….

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2012

  • Recognising and dealing with informal influences in water and sanitation services delivery

    50 1373382587 688 2012 Community Management, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    Donor-funded water and sanitation improvement programmes operate within the formal frameworks put in place by municipal or national governments. However, in order to plan and implement programmes effectively, it is essential that implementers also recognise and take into account the influence of more subtle informal factors, such as conventions, norms of behaviour, and unwritten cultural…

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2012

  • Dealing with land tenure and tenancy challenges in water and sanitation services delivery

    51 1373382430 667 1 2013 Community Management, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    WSUP’s work takes place in urban contexts with complex formal and informal land ownership arrangements, raising diverse challenges for water and sanitation service provision. For example, the people in most need of improved water and sanitation are often tenants, yet landlords may be unwilling to invest in better toilets. Similarly, improving these services often requires…

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013

  • Getting communities engaged in water and sanitation projects: participatory design and consumer feedback

    52 1373382321 879 1 2013 Community Management, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    Community engagement in water and sanitation service delivery is key for ensuring project sustainability and accountability. This Topic Brief looks at community engagement approaches used by WSUP in three cities within the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme: Antananarivo (Madagascar), Kumasi (Ghana) and Maputo (Mozambique). The specific focus is on ways to encourage community…

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013

  • Designing effective contracts for small-scale service providers in urban water and sanitation

    53 1373382202 841 1 2013 Business, Community Management, Finance, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    Extending water and sanitation services to the urban poor will often involve contractual relationships between small-scale entrepreneurs and municipalities or utilities. This Topic Brief draws on WSUP’s experience in the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme to illustrate ways of dealing with the challenges that arise when developing this type of contract, providing practical…

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013

  • Hybrid management models: blending community and private management

    54 1373382079 850 1 2013 Business, Community Management, Finance, Sanitation, Utilities Management, WASH Planning, Water English Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Publications: Topic Brief

    A clear distinction is generally made between community and private management of water and sanitation services.  For example, entrepreneurs who provide services are assumed to hold very different motivations, values and approaches to Community Based organisations (CBOs). WSUP often seeks to go beyond this “community” versus “private” dichotomy, to try to get “the best of…

    Publications: Topic Brief, Published 2013